More scandalous talk about Regency underwear

Getting dressed during the Regency seems to be quite an ordeal compared to today’s practices, but it really isn’t all that complicated. As I sit in my air conditioned office, glaring at the heat outside, it’s hard to imagine ladies would have been willing to do it. However, keep in mind that the weather in Regency England was much cooler tan it is today because they were near the end of a mini Ice Age. With such drafty houses and cold temperatures, staying warm would have required many layers of clothing.

The first to put on was a shift, also called a chemise. It was made of fine linen. They were almost exactly like those of the previous century, but the sleeves are shorter. A chemise provided a barrier between a woman’s body and the other layers of clothing, so the shift absorbed perspiration and was washed the most. Laundry methods used stringent soaps and boiling to achieve a high level of clean as well as to remove any stains or discoloration. Clothes could also be left out in the sun even after they were dry to be bleached clean. Since the washing process was so harsh, clothes wore out quickly and needed to be replaced frequently, therefore, shifts were usually pretty cheaply made–without embellishment. All of the shifts I saw in museums were fairly plain and unadorned. 

I had my shift made out of poly cotton batiste which is as close to an heirloom fabric as I could find. A fine weave muslin would have worked well, too. For my shift, we used this pattern:  http://www.marariley.net/shift/shift.htm

As you can see, my shift is fairly shapeless which is exactly what they looked like. My seamstress gathered the neck and sleeves to make it easy to fit under any kind of sleeve and neckline, but this is not necessarily how they were all made. Clothes were custom made, so historical seamstresses each probably had her own favorite pattern. If I were to do it again, I would use bleached fabric rather than unbleached, because that’s probably what a lady in the higher class would have worn. Also, I would have cut it in a little more so there isn’t so much bunching when the rest of the layers go on.

The shift is lightweight and comfortable. It is also, I might add, probably the ONLY thing worn next to the skin. There are just too many convincing arguments that state ladies of high quality did not wear drawers or pantaloons underneath. I know, it seems shocking, but sensibilities were very different in Regency England. For more information about that debate, see my blog post on the topic.

Also, even though some ladies wore nightgowns or night rails, it seems other ladies simply wore their shifts to bed rather than changing, so they served multiple purposes.

Next week I’ll discuss the next layer, the corset stays. So “stay” tuned 🙂

More scandalous talk about Regency underwear syndicated from http://donnahatch.blogspot.com/

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The Great Regency Underwear Debate

Historians, researchers, and authors have long debated what ladies in Regency England wore under their gowns. We know they wore a shift, or chemise, over which they laced up stays (a type of Regency corset but more comfortable), and then donned a petticoat, which was basically a long slip. We also know they wore stockings that tied or buckled. But our modern-day sensibilities insist that they must have worn drawers or pantaloons, right?

Not necessarily. There’s a bit of controversy about drawers or knickers.

We know drawers existed by 1806 because merchants were advertising and selling them. However, they did not cater to upper classes. Some women began wearing pantaloons of flesh colored or pink stocking that went to just below the knee, but these were by no means a commonly adopted garment. From what I have found, most women during this period did not, apparently, wear knickers or drawers. They were a direct imitation of men’s undergarments, and as such, risqué. Also, prior to the Regency, the only women who wore them were prostitutes, so obviously ladies of high society would want nothing to do with this kind of garment.

In 1811, Princess Charlotte wore them, but despite this, many considered the garment shocking and openly criticized her for wearing it. Remember, drawers were considered a masculine garment and women who wore them were denounced as being vulgar.

Long drawers with feet attached were introduced sometime during the Regency. By 1817, some fashionable ladies wore pantalettes, a longer, lace-edged variation of drawers that were meant to be seen below the petticoat. But this did not catch on for about a decade. Even then, pantalettes had two entirely separate legs. This picture to the right shows them sewn to a type of top, but most of them tied around the waist.

(Before you continue, I must warn you: the images below are a tad graphic, so please don’t send me hate mail.)

The lack of underwear was so common that social and political cartoons of the day reflected this. Thomas Rowlandson, a famous illustrator and cartoonist he did water colors of soldiers, wars, death and dying, the hunt, several humorous series, as well as some rather erotic pieces. One of these is called Exhibition Stare Case pictured to the left.

Many satirical cartoons by different cartoonists including Cruikshank, and Gilray show pictures of women tumbling off horses  or, in the case of the picture to the right, warming themselves in front of a fire. In all these drawings, women are clearly wearing nothing underneath their skirts. However, there also seems to be a lack of any sort of undergarment, so I’m not certain we can fully accept this as proof.

Obviously, back then, as today, political cartoons are only loosely based on fact. They are supposed to be absurd. However, so many of them reveal (no pun intended) the lack of ladies’ undergarments that one wonders.

Progress of the Toilet is a set of three images (one of which is shown below left) published by James Gillray in 1810 which pours ridicule on fashions of the period dictating how the shapes of women should be altered to meet current standards of beauty. He does show a woman wearing drawers. It doesn’t look like it, but she is wearing a chemise – you can see the sleeves and the edge around the top of her stays – but it’s tucked into her drawers. I don’t know the exact date of the image. One source said this series was created in 1810 but I have not been able to verify that. If it is contemporary to the Regency, it’s probably closer to late Regency than early. Regardless, I find it unlikely that ladies had adopted this as their norm by this date. It’s also possible the cartoonist showed drawers to add to the absurdity of his attempt to ridicule the complicated process of dressing for the day.

In the 1820s long pantaloons (sometimes incorrectly called pantalettes) were adopted. It gets confusing because men wore pantaloons–silk breeches that went to the knee–for formal occasions until well into the 1820s and beyond. At any rate, the feminine version of pantaloons were meant to show beneath the slightly raised hemlines of the era. They quickly went out of fashion for adults, but were retained by children well into the Victorian era.

To our modern-day sensibilities and cultural delicacies (if we have any left) makes the idea of not wearing some kind of panty or undergarment sound rather obscene but remember, they had far different viewpoints about a great many things.

Some experts claim that women wore drawers and others swear they didn’t. I suspect that just as today some men and women don’t wear underpants, there were those who did during the Regency. It doesn’t make it “normal.”

 

Other reading you might enjoy:

Corsets and Drawers: A Look at Regency Underwear

https://www.janeausten.co.uk/corsets-and-drawers-a-look-at-regency-underwear/embed/#?secret=QshLHtjlFk

Ladies Underdrawers in Regency Times: Regency Underwear

http://www.fashion-era.com/drawers-pants-combinations-knickers-fashion.htm

https://englishhistoryauthors.blogspot.com/2011/11/regemcy-era-ladys-prodigious-layers-of.html

A Primer on Regency Era Women’s Fashion

https://www.kristenkoster.com/a-primer-on-regency-era-womens-fashion/embed/#?secret=jCqYDR1LY2

The Great Regency Underwear Debate syndicated from http://donnahatch.blogspot.com/

Regency House Parties

by Donna Hatch

From the Archives: Regency House Parties

Cover art for The Guise of a Gentleman--smallA time-honored English tradition, dating back hundreds of years, is the House Party. In England, house parties served multiple purposes: the gathering of friends; an informal setting in which to discuss politics and possibly sway a member of Parliament; showing off one’s wealth to friends or anyone else the host is trying to impress; and it also could provide a last-ditch effort to help a young lady secure a marriage proposal if her Season had failed to produce such a coveted event—a hostess could easily bring the hopeful young lady in contact with the gentleman of choice and provide a variety of activities to show her best side.

House parties most often occurred during or toward the end of the Season, while Parliament was in recess, and were especially popular the autumn months of August and September because they coincided with hunting and shooting season. House parties usually lasted three to four days, from Thursday or Friday until Monday, including what is now known as the weekend. Part of the reason for the long stay lay in the difficulty of travel over dangerous and poorly-maintained roads.

Longleat House

Longleat House

Country estates were the perfect way to highlight the host’s wealth. Often a long and meandering driveway took guests through beautifully landscaped acres of land to the main house. There, an impressing outer stairway led to an imposing great hall. Everyone in attendance viewed art, furniture and other luxuries, such as carriages, a stable full of impressive horses, and lawn tennis courts. A house party cost a great deal of money due in part to the lavish meals provided to guests. Hosts served expensive imported alcohol and lavish dessert, and the best glasses, china, and silver were used, or purchased, for such an event. Hosts often outfitted their servants with new, expensive livery and sometimes hired additional servants to accommodate the strain of so many guests. Female guests usually brought their ladies’ maids, and some gentlemen brought their valets. If so, these servants had to be fed and given accommodations. If not, the host and hostesses’ house maids and footmen filled these roles. Families often ate and lived very modestly for months after a house party to make up for the cost. Others simply incurred enormous debt they had no hope of paying.

Guests during the Regency enjoyed a simple buffet breakfast whenever they arrived in the dining room which included eggs, fruits, toast, ham, pastries and jam. They drank tea, coffee, chocolate (which was hot and bitter like coffee). Men might also drink beer or cherry brandy. Some hostess served luncheon but this was a new tradition during the Regency. Some old-fashioned folk held to breakfast, dinner and supper. Luncheons could be informal meals in the dining room or picnics al Fresca, or they could be as formal as dinner. Afternoon tea always appeared, of course, and dinner was always formal, requiring a change into formal wear. Of course, for the ladies, every activity or meal seemed to have its own dress code and often a change of hairstyle as well.

Wolf and Fox Hunt by Rubens

Wolf and Fox Hunt by Rubens

Activities at a house party during the day usually involved the men hunting or shooting (depending on the season), the fox hunt, and billiards.  Alas, the ladies usually got stuck inside much of the day visiting, writing letters, and other tame activities. Sometimes, they went outside for walks or carriage rides, or they watched the men plays sports.

Appropriate games for ladies out of doors included croquet, lawn tennis, archery, shuttlecock, and lawn bowling or lawn bowls.  Indoor games that involved both sexes included word games, charades, musicales, dances, and card games. Baccarat gained popularity because the Prince of Wales loved this card game–probably because it was technically illegal. “Prinny” reportedly provided his own set of counters so he’d be prepared for an on-the-spot game. Eventually bridge took Baccarat’s place in popularity.

After dinner, the ladies left the men and retired to the drawing room, leaving the gentleman to drink port, smoke cheroots, and discuss manly topics such as horses and politics. Later, the gentlemen joined the ladies for cards or music or dancing or games. April 1816 Ball

The house party, like most events, evolved over time. However, its purpose and popularity lasted for generations.

Sources:

Years of researching Regency customs inspired the bulk of this post, however, I also drew from:

https://janeaustensworld.wordpress.com/2010/12/28/entertaining-visitors-in-an-english-country-house-such-as-downton-abbey/

Evangeline Holland / Posted in SeasonSociety

The Country House Party

http://www.edwardianpromenade.com/season/the-country-house-party/embed/#?secret=7kBCqkVlnH

Further Reading:
The Country House Party by Phyllida Barstow
The Marlborough House Set by Anita Leslie
Society in the Country House by Thomas Hay Sweet Escott
Manners and Rules of Good Society by A Member of the Aristocracy
Etiquette of Good Society by Lady Colin Campbell
“A Country House Party” by Lord Byron in A Satire Anthology by Carolyn Wells

Regency House Parties syndicated from http://donnahatch.blogspot.com/

Huge Book Giveaway by Multiple Authors

Win up to 25+ Historical Romance eBooks & Gain Access to Deals & Steals on even more!

(2) Grand Prize “Gift Baskets” of ALL eBooks!
(25+) Winners of Individual eBooks (randomly selected titles)

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Huge Book Giveaway by Multiple Authors syndicated from http://donnahatch.blogspot.com/

Dove Cottage, a cottage to inspire poets

                 The back of Dove Cottage,  copyright Donna Hatch

On the edge of Grasmere in England’s Lake District nestles a little cottage known as Dove Cottage, famous for being the residence beloved poet William Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy Wordsworth. The siblings lived there in harmony from December 1799 to May 1808, enjoying their “plain living, but high thinking.”

The two-story limestone structure was originally an inn and pub called the “Dove and Olive Bough” during the 17th century. While living in what became known simply as “Dove Cottage,” the scholarly brother and sister wrote, designed gardens—and maintained them with their own hands—and enjoyed a simple country life.

Entrance to Dove Cottage, copyright Donna Hatch

The enchanting setting deep in the inspirational beauty of the Lake District provided one of the most productive times of Wordsworth’s writing career. Wordsworth often enjoyed long, intellectual discussions with other poets, authors, and scholars.

Dorothy Wordsworth was an accomplished seamstress. Her famous Grasmere journal is scattered with glimpses into every day life including sewing and mending along with writing and going for long walks. Her words inspired many her brother’s poems, and her journal often notates that she hoped certain passages that would give him pleasure. In her journal, she described her discovery of a field of daffodils which her brother later immortalized in one of his best-loved poems, and a favorite of my mother’s, “I Wondered Lonely as a Cloud.”

Donna enjoying a bench in the garden behind Dove Cottage copyright Donna Hatch

In 1802, William Wordsworth wed Mary Winn Hutchinson in 1802. His new wife, as well as her sister, moved into Dove cottage with the Wordsworths. Over the next four years, the family expanded to include three children. This surely must have created cramped quarters, so in 1808, the family sought a larger home and left behind their beloved Dove Cottage. However, the words they penned while living in Dove Cottage are preserved and celebrated.

Sources:

https://wordsworth.org.uk/visit/dorothy-wordsworth-a-stitch-in-her-time.html
https://wordsworth.org.uk/home.html
…and a guided tour I took while visiting Grasmere

 

 

Dove Cottage, a cottage to inspire poets syndicated from http://donnahatch.blogspot.com/

New Release–Sweet Romance Collection

WITH A KISS: A Sweet Romance Anthology

Announcing a new collection of 10 brand new never-before published sweet romance novellas by USA Today bestselling & award-winning authors.

**On sale for a limited time only!**

This collection of Clean and Wholesome Romances in WITH A KISS includes complete stories by these ten amazing authors:

Traci Hunter Abramson
Rachel Branton
Rachelle J. Christensen
Joyce DiPastena
Danyelle Ferguson
Donna Hatch
Heather B. Moore
Luisa Perkins
Janette Rallison
Heather Tullis

 Pre-order here:
ALL proceeds for this anthology go to author Rob Wells to help with medical expenses

WITH A KISS: A Sweet Romance Anthology, A collection of 10 brand new sweet romance novellas by USA Today bestselling & award winning authors. **On sale for a limited time only!** Pre-order your copy of With a Kiss today and have it automatically delivered to your Kindle on May 22, 2018.

Romances in this collection:
DANCING TO FREEDOM by Traci Hunter Abramson: A Russian ballerina. An American hockey player. A forbidden romance. Can Katrina follow her heart when freedom is the one thing she lacks? Or will the Cold War cost her the only man she has ever loved?

RYLEE’S MIX-UP by Rachel Branton: Rylee Williams didn’t want to be a bridesmaid at her estranged sister’s wedding, the sister who’d grown up with the family she was supposed to have. So why does she find herself in a dress two sizes too big and no date for the wedding? Maybe it’s time to give up on her family once and for all. But a greased pig contest and handsome cowboy Beck Seeger might just change her mind—both about sticking it out and taking a chance at love.

THE REFUGEE’S BILLIONAIRE by Rachelle J. Christensen: Shawn Halstrom has an assignment: travel to Atlanta, Georgia to investigate The Heart of Atlanta refugee center so that Burke Enterprises can make a donation. The job should take two weeks tops, but he wasn’t planning on falling for a Cuban refugee named Carolina Diaz. She’s a single mother who isn’t interested in dating, even if the guy might be a billionaire.

JUST THIS MOMENT by Joyce DiPastena: Alys’s late husband thought her useful only for spinning thread. Now a mysterious monk has come to take her to a nunnery. Can a sightless woman like Alys exert her independence to forge a future of her own choice? And will the monk, who stirs forbidden longings in her, help or hinder her?

ORIGAMI GIRL by Danyelle Ferguson: Josephine loved teaching crafts at the children’s hospital until she was assigned to help Dr. Blake learn how to relate with his patients. As she helps the young doctor soften his sharp edges, relax his rigid folds, and open up to the people around him, she finds she can’t help but love the man he’s becoming.

SABRINA’S HERO by Donna Hatch: For weeks, Sabrina daydreams about a mysterious gentleman who frequents the lending library. Is he perchance an agent for the crown? A returning war hero? A highwayman? A fateful public assembly introduces her to the mystery man as well as an intriguing newcomer. Now she’s torn between a charming rake promising the adventure she craves, and a handsome barrister who offers security. Only one will stand by her when it matters most.

FALLING FOR LUCY by Heather B. Moore: Lucy Morley’s older sister is perfect, yet Lucy can’t even hold down a job, let alone stick with something like college. After another disastrous firing, she lands her dream job at a bookstore—and it doesn’t hurt that her new boss, Adam Parks, is pretty much her dream man. But if Lucy is good at one thing, it’s guarding herself from heartbreak. Adam has other plans in mind that include finding a way into Lucy’s heart.

MY DEAREST EMMA by Luisa Perkins: Since her husband died at 25, Johanna has worked at a busy hotel in the new railroad town of Danube, Minnesota, soothing her loneliness by writing home to her sister in Germany. When she meets August, a shy widower, her letters reveal a budding friendship. But Johanna soon begins to question whether their romance can survive a demanding employer, August’s jealous daughter, and the misgivings of two recently broken hearts.

COVERTLY YOURS by Janette Rallison: Paisley Spencer never needed a knight in shining armor—until she finds herself surrounded by three gangsters in a bad part of Phoenix. A handsome stranger intervenes, rescuing her from certain disaster. The only catch? Now she has to pretend to be his girlfriend for the next hour. She finds it’s a job she doesn’t want to end.

Novella by Heather Tullis: description coming soon

Pre-order your copy of With a Kiss today and have it automatically delivered to your Kindle on May 22, 2018.

 

New Release–Sweet Romance Collection syndicated from http://donnahatch.blogspot.com/

London Rookeries

During the late 1700’s London experienced a population explosion, and these newcomers—mostly working class—needed places to live. Unscrupulous landlords rented out rooms in medieval buildings. These areas became knowns as “Rookeries” and they were the very vilest of London slums.

Entire families crammed into single rooms with little to no ventilation because windows were taxed, so they were removed or boarded up. Since candles were expensive, many of these families lived in perpetual darkness. The ancient structures provided no easy access to water, leaving residents to carry their water from the Thames, which was so polluted by nearby cesspits and the filth that dripped through grates and by dumping into the river, that in the summer time, the stench drove most of the upper classes to the country.

Rookeries seldom provided ways to remove waste, so open sewers ran down the streets and mingled with mud. Animal dung and rotting carcasses alleys streets filled with almost-naked children and women wearing used, faded and ill-fitting clothes. Many Irish laborers, whose strong backs helped build so many London fortunes, lived in these rookeries and trudged to work daily to eke out enough to pay the rent but practically starving.

Such cheap and neglected places became breeding grounds for crime, prostitution, addiction, and all manner of filth. In some cases, newer but cheaply-made buildings were constructed between existing structures, cramming in more and more living space and creating tiny alleys where thieves prayed upon those foolish enough to venture there. It was reportedly so dangerous that attempts by the police to perform arrests often resulted in deadly violence. For about 100 years, the police simply avoided those places and advised citizens to do the same.

The poet George Galloway described one in 1792 as “a cluster of mean tenements densely populated by people of the lowest class.”

Thomas Beames, a clergyman, witnessed the unspeakable living conditions and poverty and wrote a report about it called The Rookeries of London: Past, Present, and Prospective published in 1852. He recorded: “A dirtier or more wretched place he had never seen. The street was very narrow and muddy, and the air was impregnated with filthy odours.”

I’m certain such a crowded, dark, filthy living conditions was also a breeding ground for disease, and with no means to pay for medical attention.

The dire living conditions at these dens of vice and poverty were so infamous that in 1816, a Parliamentary Committee was organized to access the London slums and seek solutions. Still, change took decades, partly because so many people had the attitude that these slums were the direct result of wickedness or idleness. They often derided the Irish laborers who lived there. Finally, journalists, novelists and social reformers convinced Parliament that the slums were largely caused by unemployment, under-employment, and little to no access to education.

Finally, the Victorians, in their pursuit for modernization and therefore sanitation, rid themselves of the rookeries and the last remnants of medieval London. As planned, those who inhabited the rookeries left. However, still in need of cheap housing, they relocated to Bermondsey, Brixton and Hackney where they continued to plague Victorians.

The Suspect’s Daughter, book 4 of the Rogue Hearts Series

In my novel, The Suspect’s Daughter,  a couple of scenes that take place in the slums of London, where the heroine, a gently-bred lady, is so horrified by the appalling conditions that she offers the young mother a job at her country home where the woman can better provide for her small children and where they will be safe. Though my heroine can’t help everyone, she helps those she can. It is a philosophy I embrace and that I hope resonates with my readers.

Sources:

http://georgianlondon.com/post/49461306842/slum-living-londons-rookeries

https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/the-rookeries-of-london-a-survey-of-londons-poorest-quality-housing

https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/art/features/st-giles-the-psychogeography-of-londons-rookery-2284879.html

18th and 19th century London Rookeries Historical Hussies

Victorian London – Publications – Social Investigation/Journalism – The Rookeries of London, by Thomas Beames, 1852

London Rookeries syndicated from http://donnahatch.blogspot.com/

Heroes and Time Travelers

Nestled deep in the heart of a large city park at the edge of Sacramento, visitors and school children can find a time machine. This time machine only stops in one time and place: Rhoads School, the 1890’s. Rhoads is a one-room schoolhouse where a pleasant but firm schoolmarm welcomes children and teaches values such as honesty and manners along with reading, writing, and arithmetic.

This one-room school is not a re-creation; it is a fully-restored school originally built in 1872 in Soughhouse, CA. A victim of progress, the school sat unused for many years—alone, but not forgotten.

During the bicentennial, the Elk Grove Historical Society decided to relocate and restore the school. They had the school lifted up and transported in a perilous journey underneath low-hanging power lines in its trek to Elk Gove Park. Later, junior high students restored the school in a community service project. When the Elk Grove Historical Society had the school restored to aid elementary education, they carefully chose how to do it. They even enlisted the aid of a local high school shop department to build desks identical to those used in the 1800s. Using a lone surviving desk as a guide, the shop constructed brand new desks that look exactly like their antique counterparts.

In its new home, Rhoads school helps educate children about their pioneer heritage and the history of the Sacramento valley.  As part of their living history program, third grade children take a field trip, dressed in period-appropriate attire and going by period-appropriate names they choose, to get a one-day glimpse into the schooling methods of a by-gone era.

Visiting children warm themselves by a pot-bellied stove fueled with real logs, write on slates with slate pencils, and play outdoor games during recess that children the 1800s played such as jacks, marbles, hoops, and of course, jump rope. Dressing up is part of the fun, I am sure.

The day I visited, the year was 1894 and the schoolmarm was Mistress Merrill, who teaches so authentically that she insists the children “show their manners” by standing and bowing or curtsying before giving their answers.

She even uses the dunce cap—but only to a volunteer actor/student who “misbehaves” and “has” to wear the dunce cap as punishment. At the end of the dunce cap wearer’s sentence, the teacher invites the miscreant to apologize to the class for wasting their time. She then reveals his part in the charade. He receives applause and a certificate for his performance. (Okay, so that part is not authentic but no one minds.)

Rhoads school is named after a local hero, John Rhoads. He, after uttering now-famous words, “We can’t call ourselves true men if we don’t help these people” volunteered to lead the rescue party to find survivors of the ill-fated Donner pioneer wagon train.  John Rhoads and his rescuers found the starving survivors and even carried one of the survivors, a three-year old girl, on his shoulders all the way back. This choice put John and the lives of the entire group at risk, for they counted on him to guide them back home. He refused to put her down, vowing to carry her or die trying. The child, Naomi Pike, lived into her 90’s and always called John Rhoads her savior.

The Rhoads school field trip is a memorable experience for the school children who quickly grow to respect and admire their schoolmarm. Though soft-spoken and even tempered, Mistress Merrill starts out strict and unsmiling. However, everyone is all smiles by the end of the day.

One child recently asked Mistress Merrill, “Did you really teach here in 1894?”

Another said, “You weren’t that strict; you were fun.”

After having lived it for a day, these third-grade children leave Rhoads School with a better appreciation for their heritage and local history.

Heroes and Time Travelers syndicated from http://donnahatch.blogspot.com/

Arranged Marriages and True Love

The idea that we’d let our parents or guardians arrange our marriages leaves the modern day man and woman laughing–or possibly cringing. Yet this was a common custom throughout history in nearly every country of the world. I’m sure a few of those marriages ended up as love matches, while most grew into merely a mutual amiability born of a determination to make the most of a difficult situation. However, many such unions were supremely miserable.

Such arrangements are a favorite trope for the romance reader and author alike, inspiring countless historical romance novels about love springing from an arranged marriage. Such was the case for my very first published Regency Historical Romance novel, The Stranger She Married and again in Courting the Countess.

Which begs the question; why were arranged marriages so common?

I can’t speak for other countries, but in England, the institution of marriage was a union of rank and property rather than of love. Though many popular ballads, poems, and plays of the era praised true love, in reality, practicability ruled more heavily than affairs of the heart. During the Regency era, all women, even ladies of the gentry and aristocracy, possessed very little independence. They were, in essence, property of their parents until they married, at which time they became property of their husbands. Therefore, parents cautiously settled their daughters in what they deemed were ‘good matches.’

They valued security over love because in a time when divorce was almost unheard of–and viewed as scandalous–marriage was a lifetime commitment, for better or worse. Parents searched for a men who would keep their daughter fed and cared for. They could only hope that love, or at the very least, regard, would bloom later. Men understood that marriage was a duty in order to produce heirs.  Love itself, if it came, was a bonus.  In fact, most men had mistresses because marriage wasn’t usually a romantic relationship–it was more a business relationship.

The Victorian era solidified the idea of romantic love and marriage among the upper classes (Think of Queen Victoria; hers was a famous love match). Prior to that, while it did happen and people dreamed of it, and it happened in all of Austen’s novels, it really wasn’t what everyone expected.  Love sometimes happened with the wrong person which ruined families financially.

Prior to the Victorian Era, mistress often became an aristocratic man’s ideal of ‘lust and love.’  Heaven forbid a man fall in love with another man’s mistress!  Such a sin often meant death to that man because a man’s relationship with his mistress was intimate, one where men chose a woman to pleasure him, as opposed to duty being his deciding factor.  It wasn’t just about the sex with these mistresses, it was finding a woman who was everything his wife wasn’t.  Yeah. It makes me shudder, too. But that’s how it was, according to many sources including THE FAMILY, SEX, AND MARRIAGE in ENGLAND 1500-1800 by Lawrence Stone.

Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire

One such example was the 1774 marriage between the 17-year-old daughter of the Earl of Spencer, Georgiana, and the Duke of Devonshire, a 26-year-old gentleman of supreme wealth, power, and influence.  On the surface, the union must have appeared an excellent match. The Duke desired a young wife of high rank to provide him with heirs.  For Georgiana, her status would be elevated to the coveted rank of duchess. According to reports, the young couple met a few times, all well chaperoned, before they wed.

Reportedly, Georgiana tried to love her untouchable husband, but he returned to the arms of his mistress. Their infamously unhappy marriage proved that money and status could not guarantee love or  happiness.

The Duchess, 2008 Hollywood film

The true story inspired Hollywood’s 2008 film The Duchess. Isn’t tThe wedding gown costume worn by actress Keira Knightly (right) gorgeous? But I digress.

But not all marriages were so unhappy. Amanda Vickery, in her book A Gentleman’s Daughter contends that many people married for affection; that it was, in fact, more common than marrying for rank or wealth. I hope that is true! Still, arranged marriages were common, often with the couple only having met a few times, or not at all, prior to the wedding.

In my stories, the characters all fall in love and find great joy together. After all, I’m all about the happily ever after 🙂

The Stranger She Married

Desperate to save her family from debtor’s prison, Alicia vows to marry the first wealthy man to propose. Her choices? A scarred cripple and a rake with a deadly secret.

Courting the Countess

When the only way to prevent a duel between her brother and the man she loves is to marry his brother, Elizabeth loses her dreams of love and happiness…unless she can learn to love the stuffy earl who might be trying to court her in his own, gruff way.

 

 

Arranged Marriages and True Love syndicated from http://donnahatch.blogspot.com/

Clean Romance Taking USA Today by a Storm

Starting today, April 16, through April 18, Autumn Masquerade, a Timeless Regency Romance Anthology, is only $.99 for the first time EVER. That’s 99 cents for this fantastic collection of three complete romance novellas by three best-selling authors. This sale only lasts 3 days!

Readers who enjoy historicals and Austen-esque stories set in Regency England will love this collection of sweet, romantic tales.

Let’s get this volume on the USA Today Best sellers list for Historical Romance and  prove to the world that there IS a place for Romance novels that have no sex scenes, no bad language, nor violence, and which provide a satisfyingly romantic happily-ever-after. Whether you prefer the term PG-rated, Clean, or Sweet, these heart-warming, swoony romances are sure to restore your faith in true love!

How can you help show publishers that readers do read clean romance? Here are 7 ideas:

Share this post on Facebook.

Tweet on Twitter.

Pin meme on Pinterest.

Post meme on Instagram.

Tell a friend.

Buy a copy for yourself from Amazon here or from Nook or iBooks.

Buy one for a friend 🙂

Autumn Masquerade is 99 cents only through April 21, 2018. After that, it goes back up to the regular price, so please help spread the word on Twitter, Facebook, Pinterest. Ready, set, go!

Not convinced? Here is more info about this great collection of clean romances:

**Amazon Top 10 in Regency Romance**
**Amazon Top 10 in Victorian Romance**
**Amazon UK Bestseller**

From the publisher of the USA TODAY bestselling Timeless Romance Anthology series.

Join three bestselling Regency romance authors, Josi S. Kilpack, Donna Hatch, and Nancy Allen, for three new Regency romance novellas in AUTUMN MASQUERADE.

A MERRY DANCE by Josi S. Kilpack. When Lila overhears her uncle talking about a man coming to look for property in the county, she doesn’t think twice, until her uncle says he hopes Lila will find enough interest to marry the man. How can she marry someone named Mortimer Luthford, not to mention that his advanced age of thirty-three, and especially since she’s already in love with her absent cousin Neville? But when Mortimer arrives, Lila has to try every trick known to women to act not interested in the rather fascinating man, which proves a very difficult façade to maintain.

UNMASKING THE DUKE by Donna Hatch. The last thing Hannah Palmer wants to do is flirt with men in a crowded ballroom, but when her sister throws a Masquerade Ball, Hannah can’t say no to the invitation. Taking comfort behind a mask, she dances with a charming masked man, matching him wit for wit. When the glorious evening culminates in a kiss, and the two remove their masks, Hannah is horrified to discover the man she’s been flirting with all night is her most despised neighbor, the Duke of Suttenberg. No matter how charming the duke was at the ball, and how wonderful the kiss, he is the last man she’d ever accept.

WHAT’S IN A NAME by Nancy Campbell Allen. Penelope Timely has a terrible secret. She’s been writing letters to the Duke of Wilmington, pretending to be her ever-proper twin sister, Persephone. Now, the duke has written that he’ll be coming for the Autumn Masquerade Ball and Festival. Penelope will have to continue the charade while the duke is in town in order to protect her sister. The Duke of Wilmington isn’t fooled for a moment, but instead of confessing that he knows about the deception, he finds himself utterly charmed by Penelope and jumps into the game of deception to see how far the twin sisters will take it.

Autumn Masquerade is 99 cents for only 3 days ! Order your copy now here on Amazon, Nook and iBooks.

Clean Romance Taking USA Today by a Storm syndicated from http://donnahatch.blogspot.com/